procedure. You can use printing exposure to make your
prints lighter or darker, and the contrast can be altered
by your choice of printing filters. You, also, have other
creative controls available, such as cropping
(composition), dodging, printing, or burning in,
vignetting, diffusing, correcting image distortion, and so
you do an injustice to your skill and reputation as a
sharply defined lines that you can see in the projected
magnifies the negative grain structure by 10X to 25X.
This magnification allows you to focus the actual grain
structure of the image. A grain focuser provides you with
the sharpest focus you can get from a given negative.
distance from the mirror to the eyepiece is equal to the
distance from the mirror to the easel (fig. 11-11);
therefore, when you see a sharp image of the grain
structure in the magnifier, the image projected on the
easel is equally sharp. The area of the negative visible
in the magnifier is extremely small. You are not actually
looking at details of the image but at the grain structure
of the negative that actually produces the image.
grain focuser on the easel with a sheet of focusing paper
in it, so a central portion of the projected image reflects
from the mirror into the eyepiece of the grain focuser.
Examine the grain structure through the eyepiece and
absolutely sharp focus.
of the photograph. Most photographs are intended to
present an idea or provide the viewer with some type of
information. The better the composition of the finished
picture, the better it communicates the intended
however, the majority of photographs can be improved
during the printing process by cropping. You can use
cropping to eliminate distracting or unwanted scene
elements, to straighten a tilted horizon, to alter the center
of interest, or to strengthen leading lines.
interest should be somewhat to the left or right and a
little below or above the physical center of the picture.
The exact location for the center of interest depends on
the subject and the format of the print.
in a photograph should be absolutely horizontal. The
vertical lines of buildings, with one exception, should
Basic Photography Course