the film vigorously in the stop bath and initially in the
fixer because gases are released in these solutions and
there is danger of air bubbles forming on the film
surface. If you allow these air bells, or bubbles, to form,
they may cause dark spots. This is due to the continued
action of the developer beneath the bubbles. Agitate the
film in the fixing bath for a few seconds and then the
safelights or the white lights may be turned on. Continue
agitating the film until it loses the cloudy or creamy
appearance. Note the time required for this change to
occur because it is just half the total required fixing time.
Agitate the film several times during the second half of
the fixing time. After the film clears, continuous
agitation is not necessary.
After fixing is completed, transfer the negative to
the wash water and continue to agitate it unless a regular
film washing tank or tray is available. After washing is
complete, the film should be treated in a wetting agent
and dried.
As stated earlier, with experience you can process
several sheets of line copy film at a time in a tray.
When processing several sheets in a tray at once, there
is an added step. This is a predevelopment rinse in
clean water that should be at the same temperature as
the rest of the processing solutions. The predevelop-
ment rinse is located to the left of the developer. Its
purpose is to prevent the films from sticking together
in the developer.
The procedure for processing more than one sheet
of line copy film at a time is the following:
1. When the solutions are ready, place a dry,
dust-free paper or cardboard on the workbench near the
predevelopment rinse. Place the exposed film holders
near this clean working space.
2. Set the timer.
3. Turn out the lights.
4. Remove one film from its holder and place it,
emulsion-side down, on the clean paper. Remove the
second film and place it, emulsion-side down, on top of
the first. Continue until all the film is placed in a loose
pile on the space provided for them.
5. Pick up the film on top of the pile with your left
hand (keep it dry until all films have been placed in the
water), drop it, emulsion-side down, into the water, and
immerse it quickly with your right hand. Pick the film
up immediately, turn it over, emulsion-side up, and push
it back under the solution. Place the wet film,
emulsion-side up, at one end of the tray. Immerse the
next film in the same manner. Stack it on top of the first
film, and continue with this procedure until all the films
are stacked in a pile at one end of the tray. Your left hand
should follow the last film into the tray to assist in the
agitation of the films.
Wet film may be handled with wet fingers.
However, be extremely careful to KEEP WET
FINGERS OFF DRY FILMS. Slight pressure with the
balls of the fingers is not harmful to a wet emulsion
unless it has swollen excessively.
The films should be agitated or shifted constantly to
prevent the individual sheets from sticking together.
Agitation is accomplished by moving the first film from
the bottom of the stack and placing it on top or by
starting a new stack at the other end of the tray. Continue
agitating the films from bottom to top until they become
completely saturated with water-about 1 or 2 minutes is
sufficient. After the emulsion is completely saturated,
the danger of films sticking together is no longer a
6. Remove the films, one at a time, from the
predevelopment rinse and immerse them in the
developer. Place the films in the developer,
emulsion-side up; slide them under the surface of the
solution quickly, and agitate them vigorously to
eliminate possible air bells. Start the timer just before
the first film is placed in the developer. Use your left
hand to remove all films from the water, and be careful
not to get the water contaminated with developer. Your
left hand should follow the last film transferred from the
water into the developer to help with the agitation.
It is important for you to locate the first sheet of film
placed in the developer quickly. To do this, align the long
dimension of all other films at a right angle to the first
sheet placed in the developer.
The films are immersed, emulsion-side up, in the
developer to reduce greater damage that would occur if
the emulsion, already softened by presoaking, were
allowed to come in contact with the bottom of the tray.
Be careful not to dig or drag the comer or edge of a film
into the emulsion surface of the film below it. Do not
allow your fingernails to touch the emulsion at any time.
Stacking films by aligning their edges against the sides
of the tray helps to reduce scratches and abrasions.
7. Agitate the films constantly, not by rocking the
tray, but by moving each film from the bottom of the
stack and placing it carefully on top, and pressing it
down gently to assure a flow of solution over its surface.
Continue this procedure until the developing time is up.

Basic Photography Course

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