8. When the timer rings, remove all the films from
the developer in the same order that they were placed in
the developer, and submerge them in the stop bath. Your
right hand should go into the stop bath with the first film
and stay there to handle each film as it is transferred from
the developer by your left hand. Use your left hand only
for transferring the film to avoid contamination of the
developer or spotting of the film. A few drops of
developer will not affect the stop bath or the fixing bath,
but a few drops of either of these solutions could rum a
developing solution.
9. After all the films have been shifted several
times in the stop bath, they should be transferred
individually to the fixing bath or hypo. Shift the films
several times in the fixing bath, agitating them
vigorously. Then safelights or the white lights may be
turned on. Continue shifting the films until they lose the
cloudy or creamy appearance. You must shift the films
several times during the second half of the fixing time,
but continuous agitation is not necessary.
10. After fixing is completed, transfer the
negatives to the wash water and continue agitation
unless a regular film washing tank or tray is used. The
negatives also may be put in regular film hangers for
11. Treat the film in a wetting agent and dry it.
Tank development is the recommended method for
hand processing of orthochromatic and panchromatic
sheet film. The solutions and the tanks are deep enough
to cover the films in the vertical position completely. The
films are supported individually in the tanks by the film
hangers. Films supported in this way are much less
subject to damage. The solutions last longer when used
in tanks and can process more films than when they are
used in trays.
Tank development for sheet film requires tanks to
hold the solutions, and racks, reels, or hangers to support
the films while in the solutions. The solutions used
should have good-keeping qualities, and they should be
the type that can be replenished by adding fresh solution
or replenisher, so the volume in the tanks can be
maintained at the proper working level.
The minimum number of tanks that can be used is
three: one each for developer, stop, and fixing bath.
However, when a predevelopment rinse is used, four
tanks are needed.
The tanks are arranged in the processing sink
submerged in enough water to maintain the solutions at
the prescribed processing temperature. Again the
process is arranged so you work from the left to right.

Basic Photography Course

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