One big disadvantage of tilting the easel is that
an extremely small diaphragm opening must be
used for depth of sharp focus. The use of a small
d i a p h r a g m o p e n i n g m a k e s f o c u s i n g a n d
composition difficult. This makes it necessary to
use long exposure times.
The prints you produce will not be perfect
every time. Table 11-3 shows some of the most
common defects found in black-and-white prints.
Use this table to identify and correct print defects.
Abrasion marks or
Surface of paper abraded
Friction or rubbing on
Store paper boxes on
or scratched; results in
the surface of the paper.
their edges; handle
fine dark lines on the
carefully; make sure that
surface of the
processing solutions are
print, especially with
free from grit or
glossy paper.
undissolved particles.
Inspect and clean rollers
of processing machine.
Bad definition in parts of
Parts of print poorly
Buckling of paper in the
Check contact pad in
defined, blurred, as if out
contact printer, thereby
printer. Pressure springs
of focus, though negative
blurring these parts.
should be firm and
is sharp.
Bad definition over
entire print.
Completely blurred print
In contact prints, because
In contact printing,the
from sharp negative.
of printing from the
paper emulsion must
wrong side of the
always be in contact
negative. In
with the emulsion of the
enlargements, careless
negative. Enlargers
focusing or, more
should be braced firmly
often, vibration of the
and protected from
enlarger, especially at
high magnification.
Round white (light)
Air bells prevent
spots on print.
Round white or light
spots in picture area.
Proper agitation of print
developer from working
in developer.
on parts of paper.
Round dark spots on
Round or circular-
shaped dark spots.
Air bells on surface of
print in fixing bath
allows developer to
continue to work
Use a stop bath between
developer and fixer.
Agitate thoroughly in
fixing bath.
Round discolored spots
appearing some time
after drying.
Round discolored spots
in picture area of print.
Air bells in washing
Thorough washing with
prevent removal of hypo
constant agitation.
in these areas
Small, well-defined
brown spots.
Brown spots on front or
Particles of rust in wash
back of print.
water from rusty wash
Where quantities of rust
are present, use a water
tanks or water pipes
filter in the line.
and/or particles of
chemical dust.

Basic Photography Course

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