be sharp and free from such defects as scratches,
abrasions, dust, lint, and fingerprints.
other words, the base of the negative (the shiny side)
should be up or facing the lamp when inserted into the
enlarger. Clean the negative and be sure there is no dust
on it. You can use the light from the enlarger to check
for dust. Blow off any dust with a bulb syringe or
low-pressure air. Then, use a camel-hair brush to brush
or lift off any remaining dust. Replace the negative
carrier containing the negative into the enlarger; ensure
it is seated properly.
As an aid for composing and focusing the image
accurately, place a sheet of white paper in the easel-the
base side of the paper is used for a focusing sheet-then
turn out all white lights.
desired portion of the image is in the picture area Raise
or lower the enlarger head on the upright standard or
column and focus the image. Shift the easel as needed,
and continue these adjustments until the image is
enlarged (or reduced) to the desired size, focused
sharply, and composed on the easel correctly.
may be printed in sections on several sheets of paper and
spliced together. Likewise, the enlarger can be turned
by placing a heavy weight on the baseboard to prevent
the enlarger from tipping over.
of view, the negative carrier should be rotated or
removed and the negative repositioned. The image
try to correct errors of image composition in the
may be a controlling factor in the final composition.
from cutting the print image in half. When the horizon
is not to be included in the print, make sure vertical
objects are parallel to the sides of the print. When the
space around the point of interest of the picture is
distracting, you can change the composition of the
picture through cropping. You can do this by increasing
or decreasing the magnification of the image and by
readjusting the easel.
exposure time is about 10 seconds. An exposure time of
production. The exact amount the lens should be stopped
down depends on the density of the negative and the
magnification of the image. This can be difficult to
determine without experience. If you are new to
printing, you should start by stopping down the lens to
the test strip is the most reliable way to determine
exposure, you do not need a test strip for every
enlargement. It is, however, a wise practice whenever
you are in doubt as to the exact exposure required.
strip, you must try to select the proper printing filter
based on negative contrast.
lens f/stop at f/5.6 or f/8, for example. Next, examine
Basic Photography Course