is too low, evaporation is slowed down. When it is too
high, the emulsion may be damaged.
process. The disadvantages of roller transport
processors are: they can leave scratches and scuffs from
dirty rollers touching the film, they require a high
amount of maintenance due to the large number of
moving parts, and oxidation can be a problem due to the
churning action of the rollers in the chemistry.
developer and film combinations, time and temperature
of the process, agitation, the film exposure, and the skill
of the darkroom worker. A good, high-quality image is
one that is free from all processing faults, including
scratches and dirt, and so forth.
possible. Normal is a rather vague term; however, a
normal negative is one that yields a pleasing print or
reproduction of the original scene when printed without
a printing filter or with a No. 2 printing filter.
from normal, you should be able to determine what
characteristics are as follows:
clumps determines the degree of graininess in the
can usually determine the cause of an error or poor
quality in a negative.
a small amount of silver is present in the negative, the
image appears thin (transparent), and it has low density.
When there is a large amount of silver present, only a
small amount of light passes through the image, and the
negative is said to have high density.
combination of the two. A heavy or dense negative is the
result of either overexposure or overdevelopment or a
combination of the two.
because the highlights are too dark, the highlights are
too dense or blocked up. Excessive highlight density is
caused by overexposure and/or overdevelopment.
When both the highlights and the shadow areas are too
thin and lack detail, the negative is probably
underexposed. Thin highlights are caused by
underexposure and/or underdevelopment.
may have overall good density except in the highlight
areas. This situation is a result of exposure latitude that
is not great enough for the scene brightness range.
are so thin and weak that they are transparent or nearly
so, the shadow areas are said to be lacking in detail. Loss
of shadow detail is caused normally by underexposure.
stressed too strongly. One is as important as the other in
the production of good photographs.
Basic Photography Course