Add 3 ounces of 99.5 glacial acetic acid to 8 ounces of
water to obtain 11 ounces of a 28 percent solution of
acetic acid.
temperatures upon contact with organic materials and
other chemicals.
Some of the chemicals used in photography are skin
irritants, and others can cause serious injuries.
Chemicals should be regarded as poisons and handled
with caution. Before handling or working with
photographic chemicals, you should become familiar
with the safety precautions contained in Navy
Occupational Safety and Health (NAVOSH) Program
Manual for Forces Afloat, OPNAVINST 5100.19
series, volume I (chapters B3 and B12) and volume II
(chapters C1, C9, and C23), Navy Occupational Safety
and Health (NAVOSH) Program Manual,
OPNAVINST 5100.23 series (chapters 15, 20, and app.
15), and Safety Precautions for Photographic
Personnel, NAVAIR 10-1-764.
There are several safety items that must be worn
when mixing chemicals. They are as follows:
Face shield or goggles-Protects the eyes from
caustic chemicals.
Plastic or rubber apron-Reduces the chance of
chemical contamination of clothing.
Rubber gloves-Protects the hands and lower
arms. Gloves should extend up to the elbows.
Because of the danger of contaminating your
fingers, all precautions concerning poisons should be
observed when you are mixing photographic solutions.
Ingestion of a poisonous chemical is commonly
induced by hands that are contaminated with a toxic
chemical. You should adhere to the precautions
published for photographic chemicals to avoid contact
or ingestion of poisonous or corrosive chemicals.
Regardless of the antidote given to anyone that has been
accidentally exposed to or has swallowed a poisonous
or corrosive chemical, the antidote is for EMERGENCY
USE ONLY. The affected person should report to the
Respirators-Used to prevent the inhalation of
fumes or chemical dust. The correct cartridge
must be used for the type of chemical being
mixed as described in Navy Occupational Safety
and Health (NAVOSH) Program Manual,
OPNAVINST 5100.23 series (app. 15).
Respirators must be cleaned and sanitized with
alcohol and placed in an airtight bag after each
Long sleeve shirt-Used to protect the arms.
There are many types of acids and alkalies used in
photography. In general, acids and alkalies are similar
in their injurious properties in that either may cause the
The majority of photographic chemicals cause the
skin to dry out due to the removal of natural skin oils.
Some types of chemistry have an accumulative nature.
This is when some of the chemicals are being absorbed
into the skin layers during each exposure to the
chemistry. The chemistry then replaces some of the
natural oils that lubricate the skin. Over an extended
period of time, which varies for different people,
accumulation could result in a total breakdown of the
ability of the skin to produce natural fats and lubricating
oils. Extreme conditions can result in contact dermatitis.
Metol (developing agent) poisoning can be a result of
accumulation poisoning.
Corrosion (chemical burn) by direct contact with
the skin or eyes or indirectly through the clothing.
Certain precautions must be observed in areas
where acids and strong alkalies are handled. These
precautions are as follows:
Intoxication or suffocation by inhalation of their
fumes. The fumes of some compounds are toxic or
poisonous, while others displace air, thereby producing
a suffocating atmosphere.
Poisoning when taken internally.
Warning signs and labels-Signs should be posted
in the chemical mixing area, warning personnel of the
principal hazards of the chemical being used. All
containers must be properly identified with hazardous
material labels.
Fire and explosion because of their instability
Showers and eyewash stations-Showers and
under adverse storage conditions. Also, some acids are
eyewash stations must be provided near all chemical
strong oxidizing agents that can generate ignition
mixing areas.

Basic Photography Course

Privacy Policy