Therefore, the best film for copying black-and-white
line originals is one with extreme contrast, such as
and extremely high density with an absence of fog,
which ensures clear lines on a dense background.
exposure. Underexposure produces low-contrast
negatives that result in prints having a muddy gray
background instead of a clear, crisp, white background.
Overexposure causes weak or very fine lines to fill in
and results in a less than perfect transparency of the lines
on the negative.
white paper and on one side only, you should place
another sheet of white paper behind the original to copy
it. This increases the reflective ability of the original and
increases contrast. When the original is printed or typed
on both sides of thin white paper, place black paper
behind the original to help prevent the printing or type
on the reverse side of the original from showing through.
high contrast between the lines and the background. This
is best achieved by using a high-contrast panchromatic
film, such as Kodak Contrast Process Pan film and a
filter. When the lines or subject is to be rendered light
against a dark background, the filter should transmit the
color of the subject and absorb the color of the
background. When the subject is to be rendered dark
against a light background, the filter should absorb the
color of the subject and pass the color of the background.
film without a filter cannot produce maximum contrast
because the film is highly sensitive to blue light and thus
records the image of the blue background as a midtone
of gray while recording the white line image as a dense
highlight. When a red filter is used, the white lines still
record as a dense highlight on the negative, but now the
red filter absorbs the blue light reflected from the blue
background. Thus the background reproduces darker
when a red filter is used.
film, such as Kodak Commercial film, is recommended.
exposure with restrained development is the best rule
continuous-tone originals because of the midtones they
contain. These should be copied as continuous-tone
originals. Films, such as Kodak Professional Copy film
or Kodak Commercial film, are recommended.
photographs, oil paintings, and so forth, is to be made,
it should be copied with a moderate contrast,
panchromatic film capable of recording numerous
shades of gray. Panchromatic, long-scale film is
recommended for copying this type of color original.
Each different colored original should be copied on the
basis of what is desired in the black-and-white
type of reproduction is needed-reflection or
transparency. Films, such as Kodak Vericolor III
Professional Film Type L and Type S and Vericolor
Internegative Film, can be used to produce color
reflection copies. Color transparency film must be used
to produce color transparencies from reflection
originals. Some films have a different recommended
ISO rating when used with tungsten or daylight light
sources. Be sure to consult the data sheet supplied with
the film or the Photo-Lab Index to determine the proper
Basic Photography Course