either more dependable or more versatile. They aid in
creating the exact lighting affect you want. Common
accessories are as follows: diffusers, barn doors, snoots,
and umbrellas. If accessories are not available,
quality you desire.
Diffusers are made of translucent or mesh materials
that, when placed in the light beam, break up or
diffuse and soften the light. The finer the mesh, the
more diffused the light. When only a small amount of
diffusion is needed, a wide mesh material, such as
gray window screen, works well. For more diffusion,
two pieces of screen can be placed together slightly
out of alignment, or a finer mesh material, such as
white cheesecloth, can be used. Floodlights initially
produce a fairly diffused light, but diffusers may also
be used with them. Diffusers can be mounted on the
light unit or placed somewhere between the light unit
and your subject.
may be needed when you do not have a soft light
sources may be needed, or you may want to produce a
small area of diffused light that can only come from a
and attached and hinged to the front of a light unit. They
light produced by the unit. Barn doors are made for both
spotlights and floodlights. They are good accessories for
controlling spill light.
at the front of a spotlight to limit the size of the circular
area projected by the unit. Short, wide snoots give a large
circle of light. Long, narrow snoots give a narrow circle
of light. A cardboard tube or black-rolled paper can be
used for a snoot when you need to improvise.
means of converting specular light into soft, diffused
light. They are used with any light source. The light unit
is pointed away from the subject; the umbrella is
light back and onto the subject. The reflected light
falling on the subject is softer and more diffused than
a matte, white surface that provides a very soft,
completely diffused light. Some umbrellas are
constructed with a shiny, metalized surface. Metalized
umbrellas throw a somewhat specular light, but the light
is softer and spread over a larger area than the light
emitted by the original light source.
the appearance of any red spots, veins, or redness in the
subject's skin is apparently reduced in the final print,
because of the sensitivity of the film to red. Conversely,
an orthochromatic film can be used when the texture of
a man's skin, especially an older man, is to be
What type of product is to be produced and what is the
color of the light source?
intensity of the light source. A slow film can be used
successfully with a light source that has relatively
high intensity, such as an electronic flash unit. When
the same slow film is used with a light source that has
relatively low intensity, an extremely wide aperture
must be used. When a fast film is used with a
high-intensity light source, a smaller aperture is
required, increasing the depth of field which may not
be desirable for portraiture.
portrait, shoot at least the entire roll. Never shoot just
three or four frames. Film is cheap and you want to
provide the customer with a variety of poses and
expressions to choose from.
Basic Photography Course