setting your main flash at one-half or one-fourth power
and adjust your fill flash appropriately.
easy way to calculate footage for a 3:1 ratio with two
lights of equal intensity is to think of the full f/stops (2,
2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, etc.) as distances in feet. Place
the main light at the desired distance closest to one of
the "f/stops," and place the fill light at the distance
indicated by the next larger number; that is, 5.6 feet and
8 feet or 16 feet and 22 feet, and so on.
unit in the automatic mode. When set in the automatic
mode, the flash-to-subject distance is not supercritical,
and there is some leeway as long as the flash units are
within their operating range.
approximately the same distance from the subject. For
a 3:1 lighting ratio, use the same automatic setting and
set the fill flash at twice the film speed as the film being
used (main flash setting). For a 5:1 or even higher
lighting ratio, use the same automatic setting and
approximately the same flash-to-subject distance and
set the fill flash at four times more than that of the main
flash, and so on.
three, you can manipulate the lighting ratio easily to any
ratio. As with any stage of photography, practice and
testing with your camera and flash combinations in
various situations produces the best results.
objectional shadows on a subject. When a flash unit is
used as a fill-in source of illumination, it reduces these
shadows and is known as synchro-sunlight photography.
photograph appear as if taken at night with a single flash.
This effect occurs when the flash illumination is more
intense than the sunlight.
and set the shutter speed and f/stop as though a flash is
focal-plane shutter, the shutter speed must be
synchronized with the electronic flash unit. Avoid using
a fast film in bright sunlight when using a camera
equipped with a focal-plane shutter. In this case, you are
limited only to your aperture to control the exposure of
the film, because your shutter speed is nonadjustable. A
leaf shutter has an advantage over a focal-plane shutter.
When a leaf shutter is used, it provides more control over
depth of field since the shutter synchronizes at all shutter
the section for lighting ratio. The sun is used as the main
light, and your camera settings are determined directly
from your light meter. The easiest method is to set the
film speed (ISO) on your flash unit to twice the film
speed being used for a 3:1 lighting ratio and four times
the film speed being used for a 5:1 ratio. A fraction of
the manual power output can also be used to achieve the
desired lighting ratio.
f/stop for a subject that is sidelighted when taking your
light meter reading from a distance. For color
photography, you should normally use a 2:1 or 3:1
lighting ratio. For black-and-white photography, a ratio
of 3:1 to 5:1 is acceptable.
flash units can be auxiliary flash units, connected to the
camera by extension cords, or they can be slave flash
sources and are fired with a photoelectric cell when light
from a master flash unit strikes the cell of the slave unit.
that produces the most intense illumination to the
subject; therefore, you can have numerous auxiliary
flash units or slaves for a scene and only calculate your
exposure from the mainlight source. All other flash units
should be equidistant or at a greater distance from the
subject as compared to the flash unit on which the
exposure is based.
Basic Photography Course