are cast at their sides and occupied or positive space
appears three-dimensional; however, since all the
machines, both near and far, are now lighted the same,
you do not create a sense of depth, and empty or negative
space appears flat. For the best picture of the machine
shop, you should light the machines in a way that the
three-dimensional form is represented, while creating a
sense of depth by reducing the intensity of illumination
toward the back of the shop.
where you want it, you can subdue objects or distracting
elements in the scene to give more emphasis to the main
point of interest.
appearance of things around you. Light and shadows can
to an area, to modify or distort shape, or to bring out
form and texture in the subject.
without form, curvature, or texture, appearing flat and
lifeless. This does not mean that shadows must be
harsh and black to achieve the effects of form,
curvature, and texture. They may be soft, yet of
and form. Generally, harsh, black shadows are
undesirable in a photograph due to the loss of detail
in them. From a compositional standpoint, black
shadows can be very useful in balancing a scene and
directing attention to the point of interest. Harsh
shadows can also be excellent for emphasizing texture
and form, for creating interesting patterns, and for
directing attention to the main point of interest;
however, the same elements can also obscure detail
and reduce form. When the lighting is harsh, such as
on a clear, sunny day, shadows have sharply defined
edges and are probably very dark, sometimes to the
point that they appear stronger than the primary
subject and attract attention to themselves.
touch it. You can provide much of the pleasure people
texture in your pictures. Texture can be used to give
realism and character to a picture and may in itself be
the subject of a photograph. When texture is used as
strength to the main idea in the photograph. It usually
takes just a little different lighting or a slight change
in a picture. When an area in a photograph shows rich
texture, the textured area usually creates a form or
shape; therefore, it should be considered in planning
the photograph (fig. 5-16).
against lights with little or no grays. The use of dark
areas against light areas is a common method of adding
the feeling of a third dimension to a two-dimensional
black-and-white picture. The interaction of light against
shades conveys mystery, intrigue, or sadness. When the
tones are mostly light and airy, the picture portrays
lightness, joy, or airiness.
center of interest. Positioning of subject elements to
create contrast gives them added emphasis and directs
the viewer's attention.
in black-and-white photography, and color contrast as it
relates to color photography. In black-and-white
photography, contrast is the difference in subject tones
the darkest tone. In color photography different colors
Basic Photography Course