evaluating the negative image, it is necessary to
consider the subject matter because less exposure is
required for light sandy beaches and snowcovered
terrain and more exposure is required for dark terrain,
such as forests and industrial sites.
negative is completely underexposed or overexposed,
the film sensitivity or filter factor (S/C) was set
incorrectly or the automatic exposure control (ABC) in
the camera system malfunctioned.
plane, causing the image to be blurred. The most
common indication of insufficient vacuum is crooked
window, can cause flare (nonimage-forming exposure)
of the film.
caused by rapid aircraft descent immediately before a
today. One method is the specific tone reproduction
method. The second method is simpler and more
feasible for shipboard use, so it is discussed in more
detail in this chapter. This method is called the
trigradient tone reproduction method or the 1.00 print
uniformity in producing duplicate positives or
negatives from original aerial negatives. The overall
objective of these recommendations is to ensure that a
maximum amount of intelligence information is
retained in an optimum form.
material must be used. For most duplicating film, the
straight line lies between densities of 0.40 to 1.80. Thus
the D-min should be close to 0.40 and the D-max should
be no more than 1.80 in the duplicate.
falls between 0.80 and 1.20, preferably near 1.00.
contrast requirement is met when the processing is
correct. Specifically, the contrast of the duplicate can
be increased or decreased relative to the original by
increasing or decreasing gamma, respectively. To
achieve these goals, you must use some form of tone
control to guide the printing and processing operations.
requires that exacting standards and controls be
stressed. This helps to ensure that the imagery is of the
characteristic curve of the duplicating material being
printing and processing requirements. This method
allows you to select one of three standardized processes.
Each process produces a different contrast or gradient.
The processing requirement is selected by determining
whether the density range of the duplicate should be
increased, maintained, or decreased. By doing so, you
can alter the density range of the imagery, if necessary,
in each generation. Thus the density range of the final
Advanced Photography Course