T = Time in seconds
D = GGF (distance)
S = Ground speed in feet per second
By substituting the values, you can determine the
exposure intervals as follows:
T = 212.5 or 16.9 seconds for aircraft flying toward the north
T= 263.5 or 13.6 seconds for aircrafr flying toward the south
6. Graphic scale. To determine what graphic scale
represents 3,000 feet, you should use the IFGA formula
as follows:
I = 12
3000 = 3 inches
Therefore, 3 inches on the map represents 3,000 feet
on the ground.
Whether you take photographs from the rear seat of
a jet or from the open door of a helicopter, you must be
checked out and become thoroughly familiar with the
necessary safety equipment and applicable safety
procedures. Before the flight, you should arrive at the
aircraft or briefing area in sufficient time for the
preflight brief. The main responsibility of the pilot is
to fly you and your photographic equipment to the
target, put the aircraft in position for photographing, and
return to the base safely. The pilot knows the limitations
of the aircraft and what procedures to follow in an
emergency. Ask the pilot about emergency plans and
FOLLOW this advice.
Aircrew personal protective equipment plays an
essential role in the safety and survival of people flying
in Navy aircraft. The equipment is designed to protect
them from the elements and to provide necessary
comfort for efficient mission performance. Its primary
function is to protect a crew member against the
environmental hazards. Different combinations of
clothing and equipment are used to provide overall
protection and comfort to an air crew member under
various flight, emergency, and environmental
Aircrew protective equipment is designed to meet
the stress of a combat environment and to provide fire
protection and camouflage with various other escape
and evasion design features. Emphasis is placed on
developing materials and clothing assemblies to
enhance an individual's chance of survival and to
minimize injuries in an aircraft accident.
Before flying in an aircraft, you must obtain the
proper personal protective equipment specified for the
type of aircraft in which you will be flying. The
squadron-, intermediate-, or depot-level maintenance
activities can provide you with the required equipment.
EQUIPMENT and the equipment must fit you correctly.
Your life may depend on it.
Unauthorized modification or deviation
from prescribed life support and survival
equipment by individual crew members
could create safety hazards. NATOPS
General Flight and Operating Instructions,
OPNAVINST 3710.7, specifies minimum
requirements for such equipment and is
supplemented by the naval air training and
operating procedures standardization
program for each specific model of aircraft.
Peculiar configurations or modifications to
life support and survival equipment are not
authorized. Aircrew Survival Equipment-
man (PR) who issue and maintain this
equipment have no authority or
responsibility to perform these actions, so
do not ask them to do so.
During takeoffs and landings, your photo gear must
be made secure within the aircraft, so it does not become
a hazard. When your equipment consists of small items,
such as a hand-held camera and exposure meter, hold
them in your lap. Tie-down straps or passenger seat
belts provide a means of securing bulky equipment. If
you cannot find the means to secure your equipment on
board the aircraft, request assistance from the plane
captain or another crew member. During flights in a
helicopter, keep all photo gear secure. This will prevent
it from falling out an open door. It is a violation of
federal law to drop objects from aircraft while in flight.
When working in or leaning out of an open door or
window in an aircraft, you should use a neck strap or
wrist strap to secure your camera and other items.

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