When using lenses or filters to create special
You may also want to use manual focusing to
conserve battery power.
attempt to force or manually focus
the focus ring when the camera is set in the
autofocusing mode. This may damage the
White Balance
Usually the auto white balance function of a video
camera operates sufficiently in the automatic position;
however, there are situations when the automatic light
balance may not work correctly. Some of these cases are
as follows:
When the light reflecting from the subject is
different from the light that is illuminating the
When shooting a monochromatic subject or the
subject is against a monochromatic background
When recording under a sodium lamp, mercury
lamp, or a white fluorescent lamp
When recording outdoors under neon lights or
When shooting scenes just before sunrise or right
after sunset
To white balance a motion-video camera manually,
you can follow a simple procedure. Normally a white
lens cap, made of a diffuse plastic material, is supplied
with the camera. You also can use any white object to
white balance the camera, providing the white object is
illuminated under the same conditions that you will be
shooting. To white balance, you simply place the white
lens cap over the lens, point the camera at the light
source, and press the white balance button. Remember,
when in the manual white-balance mode, if the color
temperature of the light changes, you must reset the
white balance.
To create special effects, there may be times when
you want to "lie" to the white balance sensor; for
example, you may want to produce motion video that
has a warm color balance, such as that which occurs at
sunrise or sunset. To produce video coverage with warm
characteristics, you can "white balance" the video
camera on a blue object or any of the complimentary
colors. When you record the scene, an overall yellow
cast is produced. You can also use filters to create
various effects.
Shutter Speed
When the Hi8 camera is set in the AUTO LOCK
position, the shutter speed is set at the normal speed of
1/60 second. When fast-moving subjects are recorded at
the normal shutter speed, the pictures are not recorded
clearly. You can improve the image quality by increasing
the shutter speed.
Because more light is required when shooting at
higher shutter speeds, you should not try to shoot fast
objects under poor or low-lighting conditions. Outdoors
on clear days, you can record fast-moving subjects at
shutter speeds of 1/2000 to 1/10000. On overcast days,
shutter speeds of 1/250 to 1/1000 are recommended.
While handholding the camera indoors, you may want
to provide a more stable image. In this case, a shutter
speed of 1/100 is recommended. Do not use a shutter
speed of 1/250 or higher indoors unless you use
additional artificial lighting.
In handling a motion-media camera, two words you
must keep in mind are STEADINESS and
SMOOTHNESS. When you are shooting motion media,
the camera must be held steady, and deliberate camera
movements (such as tilts, pans, dollys, zooming, and so
on) must be made smoothly. When viewed, the images
undergo a high degree of enlargement. Image movement
caused by camera unsteadiness is distracting to the
Very few division officers or chiefs in an imaging
facility expect a cameraperson to shoot every scene from
a tripod. Tripods cut down on maneuverability. When
you are shooting uncontrolled action, "shooting from
the hip" is common practice. During a fast-breaking
event, it is usually the only way you can get the required
coverage. When there is plenty of action in the scene,
people do not notice the effects of excessive camera
movement by the cameraman.
There are many occasions when freedom of
movement and mobility in handholding the camera are
essential. You can still produce acceptable motion-video
coverage if you use your body as a camera support and

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