(and in some instances, from film positives). The most
photographic print is made by passing light through the
negative onto a piece of paper coated with a
light-sensitive emulsion, very similar to film.
The principal difference in the two methods is the
paper is physically in contact with the negative; while
in projection printing, the paper is separated from the
negative, and the image of the negative is projected onto
the paper by a lens. Because projection printing is
usually used to produce an enlarged image, it is
generally referred to as enlarging. Contact printing
produces positive images that are the same size as the
negative images. Enlarging usually produces positive
images that are larger than the negative image; however,
because optics are used in projection printing, the image
formed on the paper can also be made smaller or the
same size as the negative image.
exposure, and processing. In printing, some negative
defects may be compensated for, thereby eliminating the
reproduction of the defect in the print.
equipment arranged properly so the flow of work moves
easily from one stage to another:
trays used in the print room
appropriate safelight conditions. Consult the data sheet
packaged with the paper you are using or the
Photo-Lab-Index for the recommended safelight.
sink from left to right-one each for developer, stop bath,
for developer, stop bath, first fixer, second fixer, and a
water rinse. This setup saves chemicals and results in
processing. When processing conditions are controlled
carefully, the processing specifications recommended
by manufacturers for their printing papers can be used
to provide excellent and consistent results.
The recommended tray processing developing times
development is complete in about 2 minutes. The image
of Ilford Multigrade developer (diluted 1:9) is about 400
processing a large number of prints; furthermore, the use
of a stop bath after development prolongs the life of the
fixing bath. If no acid is available for a stop bath, a water
rinse should be used after the developer.
prepared chemicals available for fixing prints. Follow
the manufacturer's instructions when fixing prints
because there are adverse effects in over-fixation as well
as underfixation. Overfixation tends to produce thinning
Basic Photography Course