Line Original­A document or drawing consisting
essentially of two tones (such as black and white,
black and tinted, or brown and buff) without
intermediate tones.
Continuous-Tone Original­Materials in which the detail
and tone values of the subject are reproduced by an
infinite gradation of gray densities between white
and black
Copy Negative­A photographic film negative made as
an intermediate from which prints are made.
Reproduction­The duplication of original copy by any
photographic process.
Copyboard­The board, easel, frame, or other device for
holding originals to be copied.
Reflex Copying­A method of contact printing in which
light passes through the sensitized paper and
emulsion, strikes the material being copied, and
reflects back to the emulsion, producing a reversed
reproduction of the original.
Restoration-Copying old, faded, or damaged material
to produce a more presentable or legible copy.
Duplicating-Producing copies of negatives or slides for
use instead of the originals.
Intermediate Positive-A positive transparency of a
negative used for making more negatives.
Intermediate Negative (Interneg)­A negative made
from a positive transparency that is then used to
make reflection prints.
On January 1, 1978, a new copyright statute came
into effect in the United States. Some highlights from
the law are given here. For specific details about the law
or to gain copies of the statute and regulations, send a
specific written request to the following: Copyright
Office, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20559.
Copyright Protection
Copyright is a form of protection provided by the
laws of the United States to the authors of "original
works of authorship" including photographs. This
protection is available to both published and
unpublished works. The Copyright Act generally gives
the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to do and
to authorize others to do the following:
To reproduce the copyrighted work
To prepare derivative works based upon the
copyrighted work
To distribute copies of the copyrighted work to
the public by sale or other transfer of ownership
or by rental, lease, or lending
To display the copyrighted work publicly in the
case of literary, musical, dramatic, and
choreographic, or sculptural works, including the
individual images of a motion picture or other
photographic work
It is illegal for anyone to violate the rights provided
to an owner of a copyright. These rights, however, are
not unlimited in scope. The Copyright Act establishes
limitations on these rights. In some cases, these
limitations are specified exemptions from copyright
liability. Generally however, it is unlawful to reproduce,
without written consent of the copyright owner, any
material bearing a notice of copyright. The guiding rule
in copying is to secure written permission from the
copyright owner before starting work
What Is Protected
Copyright protection exists for original works of
authorship when they become fixed in a tangible form
of expression. The fixation does not need to be directly
perceptible, so long as it may be communicated with the
aid of a machine or device. Copyrightable works include
the following categories:
Literary works
Musical works, including any accompanying
Dramatic works, including any accompanying
Pantomimes and choreographic works
Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works
Motion pictures and other imaging works and
sound recordings
This list is illustrative and is not inclusive of the cate-
gories of copyrightable works. These categories should
be viewed quite broadly.
What Is Not Protected
Several categories of material are generally not
eligible for statutory copyright protection. Among
others include the following:

Basic Photography Course

Privacy Policy